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提高压缩空气能源利用效率的最优方案

您是工程师、技术人员或制造企业的所有者……使用SMC压缩空气系统。在出现问题之前,您是否对压缩空气能源生产系统的维护和维修感兴趣?如果没有,那么您应该阅读这篇文章以了解为什么在系统出现故障之前进行维修很重要。如果是,您还应该阅读更多压缩空气系统的 最 佳 解决 方案。事实上,大多数使用压缩空气系统的生产单位都没有注意能源消耗的浪费。但只对系统是否产生足够的气体使用感兴趣。SMC本身曾经是这样的。SMC的压缩空气系统消耗的能源成本占整个车间能源消耗成本的10%左右。但在应用改进并实施工作后,浪费的成本已大大减少。让我们来分析一下降低压缩空气系统的浪费成本的方法!

主目录
压缩空气系统的成本评估
改善压缩空气系统的解决方案
解决方案一:有效改进现有的压缩空气系统
第 2 步:减少泄漏
步骤 3:修复系统中的压降
第 4 步:检查压缩空气罐
第 5 步:分离器、空气过滤器、压缩空气干燥器和安全阀的维护
第六步:选择合适容量的空压机
解决方案 2:设计一个新系统
压缩空气系统的成本评估
压缩空气的生产成本不能以每小时消耗的量来计算。事实上,压缩空气生产过程中需要考虑冷却成本。在生产压缩空气的过程中,以消耗量为100%,高达92%转化为热量。正是这种浪费的燃料使压缩空气的生产成本高出许多倍。

提高压缩空气能源利用效率的最优方案

不包括废热再利用的压缩空气系统的估计运行成本为:

空压机系统及安装成本为12%
系统维护成本约占12%
用电成本约为76%

图 1:10 年运行周期内压缩空气系统的成本

图表显示了压缩空气系统运行约 10 年的成本,成本仍主要用于能源(73%)。如果不回收产生的热量,浪费的成本太高。为了优化压缩空气能源,企业需要对设计、安装、运营和维护有一个全面的了解。一旦 确定了压缩空气系统的局限性s

改善压缩空气系统的解决方案
解决方案一:有效改进现有的压缩空气系统
第 1 步:评估对压缩空气的需求

在着手改造压缩空气系统之前,您需要确定系统中对压缩空气的需求。

– 消除不合适的设备:压缩空气是一种清洁的绿色能源,用途广泛。使用SMC压缩空气为用户带来了许多好处、便利性、设备效率和安全性。然而,并非所有使用压缩空气的设备和工具都经过优化。如果您可以列出使用压缩空气的设备和工具,那么在使用其他更经济的能源减少不必要或合适的设备时,企业将取得惊人的成果。

使用压缩空气

使用的设备

解决方案

吹清洁空气

喷枪和喷嘴

低压风机、毛刷、毛刷。

冷却

感应冷却系统

空调系统、水冷系统、通风系统、冷却风扇。

擦干产品上的水

喷枪和喷嘴

控制电磁阀、喷嘴

–规划现在和未来:对于即将开展的项目,您可以总结当前和将来使用的压缩空气设备。使用以下标准识别使用相同气体的设备类型:

最大压力(千帕)
平均消耗量 (l/s)
压缩空气质量(湿度、粉尘浓度、油量等)
– 空气压缩机的估计功耗。

第 2 步:减少泄漏
压缩空气系统的 定期 检查 和 维护是减少浪费性泄漏的一种方法。由于泄漏造成的浪费可能高达产生的压缩空气的 50%。减少泄漏是降低压缩空气系统成本的关键。

–泄漏测量:这是一种使用流量计确定压缩空气流量消耗并根据理论方法计算的方法。

等效孔径 (mm)

泄漏流量 (l/s)

年泄漏能量 (Kwh)

年泄漏成本 (€)

等效泄漏孔直径、泄漏流量、年泄漏能量和成本之间的关系。

–寻找泄漏:为了减少泄漏,必须找到泄漏。容易发生泄漏的部位有:管道、接头、调压阀、泄压阀、气动阀、螺纹接头等。

如果泄漏很大,则可以通过侦听轻松检测到泄漏。在许多嘈杂的环境中,可以通过在可疑位置涂抹肥皂来检测泄漏,通过冒泡现象检测到。或者更快更准确的可以使用超声波检测仪。

–泄漏修复:定期检查、拧紧和更换接头、气动阀,修复或更换泄漏位置。需要更换的地方应更换为同步正品元器件和配件。参考:如何找到有信誉的工业设备供应商。

–制定泄漏管理计划:需要定期执行以下任务,以确保压缩空气系统的效率。

定期检查和维护压缩空气设备;
检查压缩空气管道、气动阀、接头和截止阀;
移除该管道上调节器未使用或未使用的部分;
定期监测和综合泄漏,有合理的处理方法。
步骤 3:修复系统中的压降
对压缩空气系统造成严重问题的现象之一是压降现象,压力下降。当压力下降时,输出压力,产生的压缩空气量不足以满足生产需要。一个好的压缩空气系统是压缩机和使用点之间的压降值小于 10% 的系统。

– 使用SMC压缩机出口处的压力表监测压降。将每个压力调节器设置为最大值。

压降 = 压缩机压力 – 调节器压力。
– 安装合适的截止阀:常用的两种阀门是球阀和闸阀。每种类型都有其适合在系统上使用的特性。

– 合理布置管道,限制收缩或弯曲。风管的弯曲也会导致压降。压缩空气系统2种连接方式,以尽量减少最大弯曲的位置。

cach-noi-duong-ong-dan-khi-nen-trong-he-thong-khi-nen
分支系统。 带分支电路的主环系统。

– 计算压缩空气需求以选择合适的管道直径。如果需求量大,用小管子在使用的时候会没有足够的气压。

– 压力设置:压缩机的标准压力 = 设备所需的最大压力 + 系统压降导致的最小压力。

第 4 步:检查压缩空气罐
压缩空气罐的容量直接影响空压机的运行,决定了空压机的寿命。考虑提高油箱容量和安装位置,以减少能源使用,最大限度地减少压降和磨损。

方法一:安装一个更大的主水箱供整个系统使用。
方法二:在使用的设备附近安装辅助水箱,以快速响应设备的需求。
第 5 步:分离器、空气过滤器、压缩空气干燥器和安全阀的维护
– 分离过滤器用于将空气中的油从压缩机中分离出来,一个好的分离过滤器会增加空气压缩机的使用寿命。因此,过滤器的更换和定期维护非常重要,应按照制造商的说明进行更换。

– SMC空气过滤器过滤掉空气中残留的灰尘和污垢,帮助气体在放入容器时清洁并达到标准。物件应定期维护更换,不得堵塞过滤器,造成压降,浪费机能。

– SMC压缩空气干燥器也是压缩空气系统中的重要组成部分。为系统使用合适的烘干机也将节省能源。

– SMC排水阀:集成在水箱、空气干燥器和过滤器上。

第六步:选择合适容量的空压机
共享以上的步骤旨在最大限度地利用、分配、存储和处理压缩空气。在这最后一步中,SMC分享了更多关于选择空气压缩机的信息。下表总结了市场上可用的空气压缩机类型的优缺点。

空压机类型

优势

缺点

往复式压缩机 7.8 – 8.5 (Kw/m³/min)

压缩压力高、体积小、体积小、维护简单、多级压缩。

噪声级高,维护成本高,适用于小型系统。

螺杆压缩机 6.4 – 7.8 (Kw/m³/min)

操作简单,运行时发热量低,维护少,运行安静,结构紧凑。

能源消耗大,空气质量差。

对流压缩机

操作简单、工作温度低、噪音低、维护量少。

容量有限,空气质量低。

离心式压缩机 5.8 – 7.0 (Kw/m³/min)

效率高、功率范围宽、运行安静、空气质量高。

初期投资高,产能低效率低,需要特殊维护。

根据系统的负载选择更换空压机或安装另一台压缩机。

解决方案 2:设计一个新系统
带有日立空压机的简单压缩空气系统
–评估和建立压缩空气需求 ,如解决方案 1 的第 1 步。

– 气体管道和连接阀的设计

管道和连接位置对系统的压力设定点有直接影响。提醒大家:运行良好的压缩空气系统必须确保压缩机10% :管径、到各使用位置的管长应符合系统要求。适当位置的连接数量和类型,以及s

– 选择位置并安装压缩空气罐:将罐用于整个系统或在大容量使用位置附近安装额外的辅助罐。

– 空气过滤器、分离器和压缩空气干燥器的选择: 压缩空气系统中的配件和设备需要保证质量。使用知名大品牌的产品也是系统节省成本的一种方式。

| 查看更多:世界领先的知名设备制造商在越南亮相

使用分离器、空气过滤器和压缩空气干燥器是提高压缩空气质量的必要条件。因此,维护成本也更高。

+ 有必要计划定期维护和更换,以尽量减少压降。

+ 在排放阀上使用电子传感器优化压力调节器、储液罐、过滤器、空气干燥器的打开和排放时间。

– 确定进风口和出风口

使用安装在空气压缩机进气歧管前面的冷却器可提高压缩机的效率。或者干脆把厂外的气体引出来更干净。

– 选择压缩机和控制系统

选择压缩机,压缩机的工作范围(压缩机类型,容量…)。考虑因素(步骤 6 – 解决方案 1)以确定适合您需求的压缩机。

提高压缩空气能源利用效率的最优方案

You are an engineer, a technician or the owner of a manufacturing business… using a compressed air system . Have you ever been interested in the maintenance and repair of the compressed air energy production system before there was a problem?

If not, then you should read the article to learn why it’s important to service before your system fails. If yes, you should also read for more optimal solutions for compressed air systems .

chi-phi-cho-he-thong-khi-nen
In fact, most production units that use compressed air systems do not pay attention to the waste of energy consumption. But only interested in whether the system produces enough gas to use or not. VCC TECH itself used to be like that. The cost of energy consumed by the compressed air system of VCC accounts for about 10% of the energy consumption cost of the whole workshop. But after applying Kaizen improvement and implementing 5S work, wasted costs have been significantly reduced. Let’s analyze the ways to reduce waste costs of compressed air systems with VCC !

Main Table of Contents
Cost assessment for compressed air systems
Solutions to improve compressed air systems
Solution 1: Effectively improve the existing compressed air system
Step 2: Reduce Leaks
Step 3: Fix the pressure drop in the system
Step 4: Examine the compressed air tank
Step 5: Maintenance of separators, air filters, compressed air dryers and relief valves
Step 6: Choose the right capacity air compressor
Solution 2: Design a new system
Cost assessment for compressed air systems
The cost of compressed air production cannot be calculated based on the amount of electricity consumed per hour. In fact, it is necessary to consider the cost of cooling during the production of compressed air. In the process of producing compressed air , considering the amount of electricity consumed as 100%, up to 92% is converted to heat. It is this wasted fuel that makes the production cost of compressed air many times more expensive.

The estimated operating cost of a compressed air system that does not include waste heat reuse is:

Cost of air compressor system and installation is 12%
System maintenance costs account for about 12%
The cost of electricity consumption is about 76%

Figure 1: Cost for a compressed air system in a 10-year operating cycle

The chart shows the cost of a compressed air system over about 10 years of operation, the cost is still mainly for energy (73%). Without recycling the generated heat, the cost of waste is too great. And to optimize compressed air energy, businesses need to have an overview of design, installation, operation and maintenance. Once the limitations of the compressed air system have been identified , we have the key to optimizing energy efficiency.

Solutions to improve compressed air systems
Solution 1: Effectively improve the existing compressed air system
Step 1: Assess the demand for compressed air

Before proceeding to renovate the compressed air system , you need to determine the demand for compressed air in the system.

– Eliminate unsuitable equipment : Compressed air is a clean green energy with many useful uses. Using compressed air brings many benefits, convenience, efficiency of equipment and safety for users. However, not all equipment and tools using compressed air are optimized. If you can make a list of equipment and tools using compressed air, businesses will have amazing results when reducing unnecessary or suitable equipment using other energy more economically.

Use compressed air

Equipment used

Solutions

Blow cleaning air

Guns and nozzles

Low pressure fan, brush, brush.

Cooling

Induction cooling system

Air conditioning system, water cooling system, ventilation system, cooling fan.

Dry the water on the product

Guns and nozzles

Control solenoid valve, nozzle

– Planning for the present and the future: With upcoming projects, you can summarize the compressed air equipment that is currently and will be used in the future. Identify types of equipment using the same gas with the following criteria:

Max pressure (kPa)
Average Consumption (l/s)
Compressed air quality (humidity, dust concentration, oil, etc.)
– Estimated power consumption of the air compressor.

Step 2: Reduce Leaks
Regular inspection and maintenance of compressed air systems is one way to minimize wasteful leaks. Waste due to leaks can be up to 50% of compressed air produced. Reducing leakage is the key to reducing the cost of the compressed air system.

– Leakage measurement : this is a way to determine the compressed air flow consumption using a flowmeter and calculate by based on theoretical methods.

Table 1: Relationship between equivalent leak hole diameter, leak flow rate, annual leak energy and cost.

– Find the leak : To reduce the leak, it is necessary to find the leak. Locations prone to leaks are: pipelines, joints, pressure regulating valves, pressure relief valves, pneumatic valves, threaded joints, etc.

Leaks can be easily detected by listening if the leak is large. In many cases of noisy environment, leaks can be detected by applying soap to the suspected location, detected by the phenomenon of bubbling. Or faster and more accurate can use ultrasonic detector.

– Leak repair : regularly check, tighten and replace joints, pneumatic valves, repair or replace leak locations. The places that need to be replaced should be replaced with synchronous genuine components and accessories. Reference : How to find a reputable industrial equipment supplier.

– Develop a leak management program : The following tasks need to be performed regularly to ensure the efficiency of the compressed air system.

Regularly check and maintain compressed air equipment;
Inspect compressed air pipelines, pneumatic valves, connectors and shut-off valves;
Remove the unused or unused part of the regulator on that pipeline;
Monitor and synthesize leaks regularly to have a reasonable treatment method.
Step 3: Fix the pressure drop in the system
One of the phenomena that causes serious problems for the compressed air system is the phenomenon of pressure drop, pressure drop. When the pressure drops, the output pressure decreases, the amount of compressed air produced is not enough to serve production needs. A good compressed air system is one where the pressure drop value is less than 10% between the compressor and the point of use.

– Monitor the pressure drop by using the pressure gauge at the compressor outlet. Set each pressure regulator to the maximum value.

Pressure drop = compressor pressure – pressure at regulator.
– Install suitable shut-off valves: Two types of valves commonly used are ball valves and gate valves. Each type has its own features suitable for use on the system.

  • Arrange pipes reasonably, limiting shrinking or bending. Bending of the air duct can also cause pressure drop. There are 2 ways to connect the air pipeline for the compressed air system to minimize the position of the maximum bending.

cach-noi-duong-ong-dan-khi-nen-trong-he-thong-khi-nen
Branching system. Main ring system with branching circuits.

– Calculation of compressed air demand to choose the right pipe diameter. If the demand is large, using a small pipe will not have enough gas pressure when used.

– Pressure setting: Standard pressure at the compressor = Maximum required pressure of the device + Minimum pressure due to pressure drop of the system.

Step 4: Examine the compressed air tank
The capacity of the compressed air tank has a direct influence on the operation of the air compressor, which determines the life of the air compressor. Consider improving tank capacity and mounting location to reduce energy use, minimize pressure drop and wear.

Method 1: Install a larger main tank to use for the whole system.
Method 2: Install the auxiliary tank near the equipment used to quickly respond to the needs of the device.
Step 5: Maintenance of separators, air filters, compressed air dryers and relief valves
– Separation filter is used to separate the oil in the air from the compressor, a good separation filter will increase the life of the air compressor. Therefore, the replacement and periodic maintenance of the filter is very important, it should be replaced according to the manufacturer’s instructions.

– The air filter filters out dust and dirt left in the air, helping the gas when it is put into the container to be clean and up to standard. The object should be maintained and replaced periodically, the filter must not be clogged, which will cause pressure drop and waste machine energy.

– The compressed air dryer is also an important part in the compressed air system. Using the right dryer for the system will also save energy.

– Drain valve: Integrated on the tank, air dryer and filter.

Step 6: Choose the right capacity air compressor
The steps above the shared VCC are steps that aim to maximize the use, distribution, storage, and handling of compressed air. In this final step, VCC shares more about choosing an air compressor. The table below summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of the types of air compressors available on the market.

Air compressor type

Advantage

Defect

Reciprocating compressors 7.8 – 8.5 (Kw/m³/min)

High compression pressure, small size, small volume, simple maintenance, multi-stage compression.

High noise level, high maintenance cost, suitable for small system.

Screw compressors 6.4 – 7.8 (Kw/m³/min)

Simple operation, lower heat output when operating, less maintenance, quiet operation, compact.

High energy use, low air quality.

Convection compressor

Simple operation, lower operating temperature, low noise, less maintenance.

Limited capacity, low air quality.

Centrifugal compressor 5.8 – 7.0 (Kw/m³/min)

High efficiency, wide power range, quiet operation, high air quality.

High initial investment, inefficient at low capacity, special maintenance.

Depending on the load of the system to choose to replace the air compressor or install another compressor.

Solution 2: Design a new system
hệ thống khí nén đơn giản với máy nén khí hitachi
– Evaluate and build compressed air demand like step 1 of solution 1.

– Design of gas pipelines and connection valves

Piping and the location of connections have a direct effect on the pressure setting point of the system. A reminder for everyone: A well-functioning compressed air system must ensure a pressure drop of less than 10% between the compressor outlet and the service outlet at all points. When designing pipelines and location of valves, attention should be paid to: Pipe diameter, pipe length to each use position should be in accordance with the requirements of the system. The number and type of connections at the appropriate locations, plus the distance between the compressor and the point of use how to minimize pressure drop.

– Select the location and install the compressed air tank: use the tank for the whole system or install an additional auxiliary tank near the location to be used with a large capacity.

– Selection of air filters, separators and compressed air dryers: The accessories and equipment in the compressed air system need to ensure quality. Using products of reputable big brands is also a way to save costs for the system.

| See more : The world’s leading prestigious equipment manufacturers are present in Vietnam

Using separators, air filters and compressed air dryers is a must to improve compressed air quality. As a result, maintenance costs are also higher.

  • It is necessary to plan periodic maintenance and replacement, minimizing pressure drop.
  • Using electronic sensors at the drain valve to optimize the opening and discharging time on the pressure regulator, reservoir, filter, air dryer.

– Determine the air inlet and outlet

Using a chiller mounted in front of the air compressor’s intake manifold increases the efficiency of the compressor. Or simply lead the gas from outside the plant to be cleaner.

– Select compressor and control system

Select the compressor, the operating range of the compressor (compressor type, capacity…). Consider the factors (step 6 – Solution 1) to determine the right compressor for your needs.

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